The Melungeons blog

Friday, February 29, 2008

What is a Kilims

Etymology: Turkish, from Persian kilīm Date: 1881 : a pileless handwoven reversible rug or covering made in Turkey, Kurdistan, the Caucasus, Iran, and western Turkestan

Source: Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary

The origins of the kilim is an ongoing study with researchers looking for answers as to where these rugs first appeared in human history. It amazes me how people forget ancient history.


Melungeon Donald Panther Yates

Cleland Thorpe

Melungeon desendant, Cleland Thorpe is trying his best to get that train on the track, to move forward. It appears that the MHRG is more concerned with what is writtrn in blogs.

My Turk Friends in New York

My Turk Friends in New York taking a walk in the park with other students from Asia.

Bonanza of ice-age artifacts redefine America's pre-history

Thursday, February 28, 2008

Turkish Merchant

A Cotswold Family
Page 98

To the Church of St. Laurence, Jewry, he gave, with other benefactions, a stained glass window, which was destroyed in the Great Fire, and, in fact, to all churches of any parishes where he had property (and they were many) he gave generously.

Baptist Hicks was buried in Campden Church, and his momument is there. It bearsthe inscription : -

To the Memorie of her deare and deceased husband Baptist Lord Hicks, Viscount Campdem, borne of a worthy family in the citie of London; who by the blessing of God on his ingenious endeavers, arose to an ample etate, and to the foresaid degrees of honour : and out of those blessings disposed to the value of 10,000 lbs. Who lived religiously, vertuously, to the age of 78 years : and died octo : 18 : 1627.
* The "Episcopal Report" of the Gloucester Diosese in 1750 says that Sir Baptist Hickes was a Turkish merchant, and he vowed, when taken by the Moors, to lay out 500 lbs in charity if he ever returned to England. In a few hours afterwards he was retaken and he laid out in charity over 10,000 lbs. If this is true (but it was written 150 afterwards) it is but a proof of what an incomplete history of Baptist's activities this chapter is.

Wednesday, February 27, 2008

Comment on Turkish Component

Why do some people say Melungeons are not Turks? Those who make this statement are confusing readers. They are also eliminating an important fact about the admixture. They fail to mention the Native Americans who assimilated the Turks into their families, almost five centuries ago.

I think some people are just plain racist in their claims of Melungeon and "Turks" have no connections, a person can feel the hate in their hearts and minds. The Melungeon mixture came from a diverse people, but they can't fully accept the fact that there is a drop of non white genes in the family tree.

The people who came from the Old World were already a diverse mixture of people. Throughout mankind's history and to this very day, it is a common practice for murdering invaders to rape the women,they are considered spoils of war. These women are then considered outcasts by the survivors who also ostracized the invaders bastard children. When the invaders came to the shores of the Americas, they brought their old world habits of raping women as they conquered the new found civilizations.

Rudi Stettner: The Melungeons (from


Congratulations to the Dennis Maggard family on the birth of their second grandchild, Johanna Seiler, 7lbs., 11 ozs. HAPPY BIRTHDAY Johanna! May God bless her and may all of the days of her life be filled with all the good that life brings. Children are a blessing.

Tuesday, February 26, 2008

Melungeons and the Underground Railroad

by Henry Burke


Notice: This blog is subject to change. The contents of this blog is not the opinions of the owner.

Meluncan People

Race, Face, and Place:On Becoming Color-Minded

By Darlene Wilson

Monday, February 25, 2008

U.S. voices support as Turkey

U.S. voices support as Turkey seeks to 'eliminate' Kurdish rebels
By Nancy A. Youssef and Steve Lannen, McClatchy Newspapers
Mon Feb 25, 8:09 PM ET

Melungeons by Bonnie Ball

By Noted Historian, The Late Bonnie Ball

Archeologists find 5,500-year-old plaza in Peru

By Marco Aquino
Mon Feb 25, 6:06 PM ET


<< LIMA (Reuters) - A ceremonial plaza built 5,500 years ago has been discovered in Peru, and archeologists involved in the dig said on Monday carbon dating shows it is one of the oldest structures ever found in the Americas. >>

Take a look at this wonderful photo, you will not be disappointed.

On a quest to determine whether kinship exists between Turks and Native Americans

Anatolia to Appalachia

"The roots of the Melungeons who are believed to be brought to the American continent by the Spanish sailors around 1500’s"

This article has a great picture of the beautiful late Nancy Hopkins Kennedy holding her first born child, N. Brent Kennedy. As you can see Nancy has the same physical features of people in the Mediterranean regions.

Sunday, February 24, 2008

Wise. The school is known as "Melungeon College"

Journal of American Studies of Turkey

Appalachian-Turkish Trade Project

Book studies Turkish, Melungeon links

By ROBERT BAIRD, Staff Writer

The Melungeons, DNA and Inherited Illnesses

by Nancy Sparks Morrison


The Melungeons: The Resurrection of a Proud People : an Untold Story Brent and Robyn Kennedy page 73

"I remember Granddady reminiscing on his favorite book, Black Beauty, and how his eyes would brighten when he told of the mistreated horse who broke away from its cruel master and rode to greatness. That was Granddady, the mistreated child who broke his bonds and raced his heart out to the finish line. It is probably why he always loved horses; I know he never mistreated one. But life took its toll, and one afternoon as he walked across main street in Norton, Virginia, he collapsed. Nine years later, unable to move or speak from the day of his stroke, he died."

My Comment:

Heart and coronary heart disease is an inherited disease. Knowing and understanding genealogy is important. Some groups of people are more prone to diseases, these are called DNA or genetic related diseases. Example, African Americans are subject to sickle cell anemia. Being aware of this one can perhaps take certain test in order to catch the destruction before it happens.

It is worth the effort and time to read the death certificates of those who are deceased. Learning the cause of death could save your life as well as the lives of your blood relatives.

In my family we are experiencing the same kind of heart disease that the Kennedy family appears to have. My doctor told me to call ALL of my cousins to get checked and get a stress test once a years. Preventive care is the best medicine. Knowing your family medical background can save many premature deaths.


Ambassador Dr. Osman Faruk Loğoğlu

Ambassador Dr. Osman Faruk Loğoğlu visiting Melungeons in Wise, Virginia in 2005


Saturday, February 23, 2008

Turk Shaman

courtesy Brent Kennedy

Turkey Embassy in Washington DC

Courtesy of


Turk Girl in Traditional Dress

Courtesy of Brent Kennedy

Laree Lee, this picture is not a Turk woman wearing Native American clothing. This is a Turk woman dressed in traditional Turk clothing.

1790 Census Index NC




1783 Virginia Tax List

1783 Princess Anne County, Virginia Tax List

Absalom, William
Ackiss, John, Jr.
Ackiss, John, Jr.
Ackiss, John, Sr.
Ackiss, John, Sr.
Ackiss, Jonathan
Ackiss, William
Ackiss, William
Airs, Francis
Airs, Wiloughby
Aitcheson, Rebecca
Allen, Thomas
Allen, Thomas
Anderson, Demce
Anderson, Marshall
Anderson, Nathaniel
Atwood, Betty
Atwood, Thomas
Atwood, William
Axstead, Caleb
Axstead, Thomas
Banks, James
Banks, Rebecca
Banks, Thomas
Barfoot, Elizabeth
Barnes, Caleb
Barns, Francis
Barns, Joshua
Barns, Kezia
Barrott, Amy
Barwell, Barthoy
Batten, Caleb
Batten, Caleb
Batten, George
Batten, George
Batten, James
Batten, James
Batten, William, Jr.
Batten, William, Jr.
Battin, William, Jr.
Berrey, Malachi
Berrey, Malachi
Berry, Richard
Berry, Willoughby
Bevans, William
Biddle, John P.
Bisco, John
Bisco, John
Bishop, Peggy
Bolt, John
Bolt, Thomas
Bonnay, Richard
Bonney, Edward, Sr.
Bonney, Jeen
Bonney, John
Bonney, John
Bonney, Richard
Bonney, William
Bonny, Elizabeth
Bonny, Elizabeth
Bonny, Johnathan
Bonny, Jonathan
Bonny, Richard
Bonny, Tully
Booth, George
Booth, George
Booth, John
Booth, John
Borroughs, Anthony
Borroughs, Christopher
Boush, Frederick
Boush, Joice
Boush, William
Brent, Haynes
Brewer, James
Bright, Hanson
Brinson, Cornelius
Brinson, Cornelius
Brock, Anne
Brock, John
Brock, Nathaniel
Brock, Nathaniel
Brock, Ransom
Brock, William
Brock, William
Broughton, Charles
Broughton, George
Brown, Betty
Brown, Betty
Brown, Cortney
Brown, Edward
Brown, Edward
Brown, James
Brown, John
Brown, John
Brown, John
Brown, John, Sr.
Brown, Jonathan
Brown, Martha
Brown, Moses
Brown, Moses
Brown, Sarah
Brown, Thomas
Brown, Tully
Bryan, John
Bryan, John
Burgess, Lanfer
Burkey, Jonathan
Buskey, Cornelius
Buskey, Rebecca
Bustin, Thomas
Butt, Beriah
Butt, Cartwright
Butt, Willis
Caleman, Charles
Caleman, Charles
Callaway, Elizabeth
Camell, John
Camell, John
Campbell, Anne
Canaday, John
Canaday, Rhoda
Cannon, Elizah
Cannon, Thomas
Canoway, James
Capps, Dennis
Capps, Edward, Jr.
Capps, Edward, Jr.
Capps, Edward, Sr.
Capps, Enock
Capps, Frances
Capps, Henry
Capps, Henry
Capps, Henry
Capps, Henry, Sr.
Capps, Hillary
Capps, James
Capps, John
Capps, Morriss
Capps, Moses
Capps, Obed
Capps, Tully
Capps, William
Capps, William
Capps, William, Sr.
Carmical, John
Carteen, Thomas
Cartwright, William
Cason, Cornelius, Jr.
Cason, Cornelius, Sr.
Cason, Hillary
Cason, James, Jr.
Cason, James, Sr.
Cason, John, Sr.
Cason, Moses
Cason, Solomon
Cason, Solomon
Caten, James
Caten, John
Caton, Elizabeth
Caton, Mary
Cavender, Henry
Cavender, John
Cavender, Reuben
Cavender, Thomas
Chapel, Thomas
Chapple, George
Chapple, George
Chapple, Henry
Clay, Mary
Coats, Elizabeth
Cock, John
Collins, Frankey
Collins, Henry
Collins, Maxamilian
Commings, Fenton
Cone, Elizabeth
Cone, James
Corbell, Josiah
Corbit, Richard
Coribt, Caleb
Cormick, Endinm.
Cormick, Lemuel
Cornick, Amy
Cornick, Henry
Cornick, John
Cornick, Nathan
Cornick, William
Cornis, Thomas
Corpew, John
Corprew, George Durant
Corrill, James
Cottons, Timothy
Cox, Benjamin
Cox, Ezekel
Cox, John
Cox, John, Jr.
Cox, John, Jr.
Cox, William
Cox, William
Craft, Simon
Craig, Ebneazer
Creed, Mary
Creed, Mary
Cromick, Joel
Cuberfoot, Meshaly
Cummings, Caleb
Cummings, Joshua
Davice, Aber
Davis, Edward
Davis, Horatio
Davis, Molly
Davis, Richard
Davis, Robert
Davis, Samuel
Davise, Elires
Dawley, Caleb
Dawley, David
Dawley, Dennis
Dawley, Elizabeth
Dawley, Henry
Dawley, Jonathan
Dawley, Mary
Dawley, Rhoda
Dawley, Thomas
Dear, Steaphen
Deele, Mary
Denny, Frances
Deske, Dennis
Dickson, Charles
Dolby, William
Doudge, Joab
Doudge, Joab
Doudge, Nathan
Doudge, Richard
Doudge, Tully
Doudge, William
Doudle, Elizabeth
Doudle, Elizabeth
Douge, Benjamin
Douge, Richard
Douge, William
Dougless, Charles
Dougless, Solomon
Drewry, Matthias
Dudley, Anne
Dudley, Charles
Dudley, Daniel
Dudley, Mary
Dudley, Robert
Dudley, Robert, Sr.
Duncan, Mary
Dyer, Hillary
Dyer, John
Dyer, John, Jr.
Dyer, John, Jr.
Dyer, Pheby
Dyer, Willoughby
Eaton, James
Eaton, James
Eaton, John
Eaton, John
Eaton, Michael
Eaton, Michael
Edey, Solomon
Edmonds, Able
Edmonds, Mallich
Edmonds, William
Edmons, George
Edwards, Richard
Elks, Solomon
Ellegood, Mary
Etheridge, Amos
Etheridge, Amos
Etheridge, Andrew
Etheridge, James, Jr.
Etheridge, James, Sr.
Etheridge, Job
Etheridge, Job
Etherige, John
Ewell, Solomon
Ewell, Thomas
Ewell, William
Fanton, Caleb
Fentress, Anthony
Fentress, Cathorine
Fentress, David
Fentress, Isaac
Fentress, John
Fentress, John
Fentress, John, Sr.
Fentress, John, Sr.
Fentress, Johnathan
Fentress, Johnathan
Fentress, Joshua
Fentress, Lemuel, Jr.
Fentress, Lemuel, Sr.
Fentress, Mary
Fentress, Michel
Fentress, Nathaniel
Fentress, William
Fisher, Jonathan
Flanagan, James
Flanagan, William
Flanakin, Moses
Forrest, John
Forrest, William
Fountain, John
Franklin, Daniel
Franklin, Nathan
Franklin, Thomas, Jr.
Franklin, Thomas, Jr.
Franklin, Thomas, Sr.
Frizel, Willoughby
Frizzel, Solmon, Sr.
Frost, Frances
Fuller, Sarah
Gallando, Abram
Garreld, Elizabeth
Garrison, Cantwell
Garrison, Cantwell
Garrison, Cantwell
Gaskings, George
Gaskings, Job
Gevin, Willis
Ghiselin, John
Gibson, James
Gibson, John, Jr.
Gibson, John, Sr.
Gibson, Sarah
Gisburn, Edward
Gnawbery, George
Godfrey, Caleb
Godfrey, James
Godfrey, Matthew
Godfrey, Matthew
Gording, William
Gording, William
Gornto, John, Jr.
Gornto, John, Sr.
Gornto, Nathaniel
Gornto, Reuben
Gornto, William, Sr.
Gornto, William, Sr.
Green, John
Green, Mary
Green, Mary
Green, Mary
Greffieth, Benjamin
Gremstead, Daniel, Sr.
Gremstead, Lawley
Griffen, Anne
Griffen, John
Griffen, John
Griffen, William
Griggs, George
Griggs, George
Grindall, Elizabeth
Grissorn, James
Grumstead, Daniel, Jr.
Guggs, Martha
Guion, Lewis
Guy, Elizabeth
Guy, George
Hague, Francis
Hancock, Anne
Hancock, John
Hardgrove, James
Hardgrove, John
Harress, Martha
Harrison, Elizabeth
Harrison, Henry
Harrisson, Henry
Hartly, Sarah
Harvey, Charles
Haynes, Elezabeth
Haynes, Elizabeth
Haynes, Erasmus
Haynes, Henry
Haynes, William
Haynes, William
Heath, James
Heathe, William
Henley, James
Henley, Newdinna
Henley, William
Henly, Charles
Hill, Elizabeth
Hill, Elizabeth
Hill, Jesse
Hill, Tully
Hill, William
Holemes, Robert
Holmes, William
Homes, William
Hopkens, John
Hopkens, Sarah
Hopkins, Kesiah
Hosier, Jeremiah
Hosier, Samuel
Huchings, Mrs. Sarah
Huggins, David
Huggins, Sarah
Humpress, John
Hunter, Elizabeth
Hunter, Jacob
Hunter, John
Hunter, Thomas
Hutchings, William
Idael, Thomas
Ives, George
Jackson, Elizabeth
Jackson, Elizabeth
Jacobs, Isaac
James, Elizabeth
James, Elizabeth
James, Henry
James, John
James, Jonathan
James, Pembrook
James, William, Jr.
James, William, Sr.
James Edward
Johnson, James
Jones, Daniel
Jones, Mary
Kayes, William
Keeling, Adam
Keeling, Alexnader
Keeling, Betty
Keeling, Henry
Keeling, Jacob
Keeling, John
Keeling, Paul
Keeling, Robert
Keeling, Thomas
Keeling, William
Keeling, William, Jr.
Kelley, Harry
Kelley, Harry
Kelly, Thomas
Kelly, Thomas
Kempe, Capt. James
Kemple, James
Kilgore, John
Kilgore, William, Jr.
Kilgore, William, Sr.
King, Elizabeth
King, John
King, John
Kinzee, Thomas
Kinzee, Thomas
Lamb, Frances
Lamount, Cornelius
Lamount, Edward
Lamount, Eliza
Lamount, Lydia
Land, Batson
Land, Caleb
Land, Edward
Land, Francis
Land, Francis
Land, Henry
Land, Hotatia
Land, Jeremiah
Land, Joshua
Land, Nathaniel
Land, Rea
Land, Richard
Land, Robert
Land, Simon
Land, Thoroughgood
Land, Willoughby
Lane, Josiah
Langley, Bredget
Langley, Thomas
Langley, Willis
Laversage, Molly
Lawrance, John
Lawrence, Joshua
Lawrence, Obediah
Lawrence, Obediah
Lawson, Anthony
Legget, William
Leggit, James
Lester, William
Lewelling, Lemuel
Lewis, John
Lewis, John
Lewis, Thomas
Lewis, Thomas
Lovett, Adam
Lovett, James
Lovett, John
Lovett, John
Lovett, Reuben
Lovett, Susanah
Lovett, Thomas
Lovett, William
Lovitt, John
Lutland, William
Mackie, William
Malbon, James
Malbon, James
Malbone, Amy
Malbone, Amy
Malbone, Daniel
Malbone, Evan
Malbone, Godfrey
Malbone, John
Malbone, Jonathan
Malbone, Jonathan
Malborn, Peter
Malborn, Sarah
Malborn, Solomon
Manning, Thomas
Martin, Joshua
Mason, Dinah
Mason, Dinah
Matthias, Charles
Matthias, Hillary
Matthias, John
Matthias, Joshua
Matthias, Rheuben
Matthias, Robert
Mattias, John
Mattias, Joshua
Mattias, Mary
Maye, John
Mc Clain, Betty
Mc Clain, Betty
Mc Clain, Joab
Mc Clain, Joab
Mc Clalin, John
Mc Clalin, Moses
Mc Clalin, Richard
Mc Clalin, William
Mc Clalin, William, Jr.
Mc Clalin John, Jr.
Mc Clinahan, Mary
Mc Clinahan, William
Mc Cull, John
Mc Keel, Frances
Mc Key, Jonathan
Millison, Ward
Mills, Ann
Mills, Southy
Moore, Abner
Moore, Archibald
Moore, Archibald
Moore, Bagwell
Moore, Bagwell, Jr.
Moore, Caleb
Moore, Cason
Moore, Cason, Sr.
Moore, Jacob
Moore, James
Moore, Mark
Moore, Susanna
Moore, Tully
Moore, Tully
Morress, Hillary
Morress, William
Morress, William
Morriss, Anne
Morriss, Cornelius
Morriss, John
Morriss, William
Morriss, William
Morriss, William, Jr.
Morriss, William, Jr.
Morrisset, John
Morse, Frances
Morse, Frances
Morse, James
Morse, James
Morse, Joel
Morse, Joel
Morse, Lazarus
Morse, Rueben
Morse, Rueben
Moseley, Arther
Moseley, Betty
Moseley, Edward
Moseley, Col. Edward Hack
Moseley, Mrs. Frances
Moseley, Mr. Hillary
Moseley, Tully
Moseley, William
Moses, Cleven
Munden, Epadt.
Munden, Nathan
Munden, Stephen
Munden, Stephen
Murden, Batson
Murden, James
Murdin, Sarah
Murphy, Anthony
Murphy, Nathaniel
Murray, Isaac
Murray, Matthias
Nelson, Elijah
Nelson, Elijah
Newton, Anne
Nickols, Nathaniel
Nimmo, James
Nimmo, James
Nimmo, Johnson
Nimmo, William, Sr.
Norrice, Agnes
Norrice, Thomas
Norris, William
Norriss, John
Nothingham, Joseph
Oakum, Mary
Old, Caleb
Old, Thomas
Old, Thomas, Jr.
Oldner, Thomas
Oliver, John
Orsbern, Walter
Otterson, Jean
Otterson, William
Padon, Charles
Pallet, Mary
Pallet, Matthew
Parr, Peter
Parsons, John
Peadon, William
Pebworth, Henry
Pebworth, Susanah
Pebworth, Thomas
Pebworth, William
Pebwoth, James
Petree, John
Petty, Edward
Petty, William
Phillips, Margaret
Plummer, George
Plummer, Jeremiah
Powers, Joseph
Powers, Pemmy
Powers, Thomas
Price, Elizabeth
Purdy, Thomas
Rainey, Malachi
Ramsay, Mary
Randolph, Mary
Rany, John
Rany, Thomas
Ray, Charles
Ray, William
Reed, William
Richardson, Daniel
Riggs, James
Riggs, John
Roberson, Adam, Sr.
Roberts, Jonathan
Roberts, Sarah
Roberts, Wrencher
Robinson, Adam, Jr.
Robinson, Mark
Robinson, Moses
Robinson, Thomas
Robinson, William
Robinson, William
Roush, George
Russel, Ann
Russell, William
Salmon, Frances
Salmons, Richard
Salmons, Richard
Sammons, John
Saulsberry, John, Jr.
Scantling, William
Scopus, John
Scott, Ann
Scott, Caleb
Senaca, Averellic
Senaca, Averellic
Senaca, James, Sr.
Senaca, John, Jr.
Senaca, John, Sr.
Senaca, Mary
Senaca, Mary
Senaca, Simon
Senaca, William, Jr.
Sharwood, John
Shepherd, Smith
Shepherd, William
Shewenft, William
Shipp, Batson
Shipp, Jonathen
Shipp, Josiah
Shipp, Simon
Shipp, Tully
Shipp, William, Sr.
Shipps, John
Short, Mark
Simmons, Joel
Simmons, Thomas
Simmons, Thomas
Simmons, William, Jr.
Simmons, William, Sr.
Simpson, William
Slaughter, Hillary
Smith, Andrew
Smith, Charles
Smith, George
Smith, George
Smith, George
Smith, George, Sr.
Smith, George, Sr.
Smith, Henry
Smith, James
Smith, James
Smith, James
Smith, John
Smith, John
Smith, Mary
Smith, Perren
Smith, Samuel
Smyth, Thomas
Snail, John
Snale, Henry
Sorey, Andrew
Sorey, Francis
Sorey, William, Jr.
Sorey, William, Sr.
Sparrow, Richard
Spatt, Henry
Spratt, Mary
Stevens, Mary
Stevenson, George
Stiring, Elizabeth
Stoeing, Josiah
Stone, John
Stone, John, Jr.
Stone, Lemuel
Stone, Simon
Stone, William
Strawhan, Rachel
Stripe, Anne
Stripe, Anne
St. Walke, Anthony
Taner, John
Taylor, James
Temmons, Margaret
Thornington, William
Thorowgood, James
Thorowgood, John
Thorowgood, John, Jr.
Thorowgood, Lemuel
Thorowgood, Thomas S.
Thorowgood, William
Toamer, Thomas
Tonge, Willis
Tooley, Betty
Tooley, Olliff
Tooley, Sarah
Trower, Robert
Totewine, Isaac
Trower, Thomas
Turner, John
Valentine, John
Vangover, Blazen
Wallace, James
Veal, Crafford
Veal, Thomas
Walke, Anthony
Walke, Mrs. Mary
Walke, William
Walker, Marthe
Ward, Anne
Walker, Thomas Reynolds
Wakefield, Lemuel
Ward, John
Ward, John
Ward, Jonathan
Ward, Robert, Sr.
Ward, Robert, Sr.
Ward, Simon
Ward, Simon
Ward, Thomas
Warden, Arthur
Waterman, Jemima
Waterson, Robert
Weaver, James
Weblen, Willoughby
Weekens, John
Weeks, Amos
Wellins, Mary
Wellins, Mary
West, Thomas, Jr.
West, Thomas, Sr.
West, William, Jr.
West, William, Sr.
White, Cornelius
White, Joseph
White, Richard
White, William
Whitehead, Charles
Whitehead, Charles
Whitehead, Issabella
Whitehead, Issabella
Whitehead, John
Whitehead, John, Jr.
Whitehead, John, Jr.
Whitehead, John, Sr.
Whitehurst, Caleb
Whitehurst, Charles
Whitehurst, Christopher
Whitehurst, Drew
Whitehurst, Elizabeth
Whitehurst, Enock
Whitehurst, Henry
Whitehurst, Hillary
Whitehurst, Hosie
Whitehurst, James
Whitehurst, James
Whitehurst, James
Whitehurst, James
Whitehurst, James, Jr.
Whitehurst, Jesse
Whitehurst, John
Whitehurst, John
Whitehurst, John
Whitehurst, John, Sr.
Whitehurst, Jonathan
Whitehurst, Jonathan
Whitehurst, Joshua
Whitehurst, Joshua
Whitehurst, Josiah
Whitehurst, Lemuel
Whitehurst, Peter
Whitehurst, Reuben
Whitehurst, Richard
Whitehurst, Robert
Whitehurst, Sally
Whitehurst, Samuel
Whitehurst, Sarag
Whitehurst, Simon
Whitehurst, Solomon, Jr.
Whitehurst, Solomon, Jr.
Whitehurst, Solomon, Sr.
Whitehurst, Solomon, Sr.
Whitehurst, Thomas
Whitehurst, William
Whitehurst, William
Whitehurst, William, Jr.
Whitehurts, Francis
Wickens, William
Wiggins, Frances
Wilber, Amey
Wilbour, John
Wilbur, William
Wiles, Ruben
Wilkerson, Joseph
Wilkins, William
Williams, Charles
Williams, Isabilla
Williams, Solomon
Williams, Thomas
Williams, William
Williams, William
Williamson, Caleb
Williamson, Charles
Williamson, George, Sr.
Williamson, John
Williamson, Jonathan
Williamson, Joshua
Williamson, Joshua
Williamson, Lemuel
Williamson, Malachi
Williamson, Moses
Williamson, Sarah
Williamson, Sarah
Williamson, Tully
Williamson, William
Williamson, Willoughby
Willoroy, Presselle
Wishart, Mary
Wishart, William
Woodard, Henry
Woodard, James
Woodard, Joel
Woodard, John
Woodard, Josier
Woodard, William
Woodhouse, Henry
Woodhouse, Henry, Sr.
Woodhouse, James
Woodhouse, John
Woodhouse, John
Woodhouse, Jonathan
Woodhouse, William
Woodhouse, William Deal
Wormington, Dinah
Wormington, John
Wormington, John
Wright, Jacob
Wright, James
Wright, James
Wright, Jeremiah
Wright, Jonathan
Yelks, Mary

Source: Family Tree Maker's Census Index : Colonial America, 1607-1789 (CD # 310)


Joanne you are exaggerating the truth. The formation of the group came to be because certain subjects on the Melungeon List were political. RootsWeb is for genealogy ONLY not for political issues. You can find the truth over on the Melungeon List. Starting a yahoo group was the right thing to do.

The Gen Forum's Melungeon Forum becomes so out of control that began to delete the offensive posts from the Melungeon forum. People everywhere is turned off by all this nastiness. This is the truth. Look at these boards. Of course you will not find the offensive posts because they have been deleted.

Another issue, so what if you can not find Sela on the Internet, maybe she is a young woman who just got her own computer. Maybe she is a newbie to the Internet because her family could not afford a computer and an Internet server. Sela is a person who is trying to understand the world that she lives in.

I think we all are capable of working together. We just need to get over the other side of the ridge. Jay is right, so what if a person is a Melungeon, it does not make you above other people or make a person special in any way. Almost everyone who lived during the 1800 and 1900's era in the Appalachian Mountains struggled to survive. For those who lived high up on the ridges life was almost unbearable but their will to survive kept them alive. At one of the MHA Gatherings Claude Collins related his experience with those who lived on the ridge. He said that he would make sure the children had milk to drink. The poverty in Appalachia was not limited to just Newmans Ridge, there were and still are groups living up on the mountain tops secluded from the towns below them. They are a shy people, how do I know this? Because I saw them and talked to a few folks. One ridge top had many children who were twins, I was told that this was common. We gave a man a ride to his girlfriend's home, she had just given birth to twins!

When I asked one lady about the history of the town and she told me that Kizzie Collins was the historian but he was out hunting. Because of lack of time I did not get a chance to talk with him.

Newmans Ridge is not unique, they are just one group of many mixed race people who choose to live atop the southeast Appalachian Mountains. Why do they choose to stay? Maybe because it was the land that was given to their ancestors for their service to the Revolutionary War? The land being passed from one generation to the next? These are the facts that we need to know in order to understand who were these people.


Friday, February 22, 2008

"Melungeon history and genealogy by Melungeon descendant Jack Goins."

Thursday, February 21, 2008

Armenian holocaust research

This IS A Post That the Melungeon Heritage Research Group Does Not Want You to Read. This post was deleted and Jay has been banned from the MHRG Yahoo Group.

I have written permission to post this essay. The author is Jay and he is responding to Curtis Christy.

RE: Armenian holocaust research


Thank you for your lengthy reply, and I apologize for my tardiness in acknowledging your response; alas work gives no quarter to personal interests. And by the way, just call me Jay; John is the given name and John Edgar was already taken for my sign on. I'd like to say that I've enjoyed reading much of the free exchange of ideas on this site, and like to put my two-cents worth in:

To begin, in response to your inquiry, I am as Melungeon, if not more so, than any of those corresponding in this group. Let me explain.

The assumptions in your post, which I've also found far and wide within this group as well as on various Melungeon websites, bulletin boards, etc., seem to posit that the Melungeons are a distinct group, race, or sub-species (pick your term) that compose a lineage of people unto their own; unique to the American continent. I've variously found them attributed to Moors, American Indians, Turks, North Africans,the ubiquitous "Eurasians", Portuguese, and assorted other so called "peoples". I submit that you are possibly right or possibly equally wrong in establishing your genetic identity. That is because you will find such mixes,(albeit, in various degrees)around the world. My best guess is that you will never know your "true" genetic identity, because since mankind discovered the ability to travel, we have been commingling our genes around the globe, for hundreds of thousands of years and thousands of generations. I find it difficult to truly fault you for your desire to be unique, as it is human nature, and I've seen the same tribal thinking from Armenia to Africa to Australia; a relic of our less sophisticated, animalistic past.

Melungeon genealogical backtracking seems to be artificially stuck at various points, i.e with the Turks or Greeks on Drake's crew, or with the Turkish nation, or the intermixed groups in Appalachia, or at whatever point you wish to stop. Personally I choose to take my genealogical heritage back a bit further, and acknowledge that we've all been spit out of the same big hodgepodge of interbreeding with phenotypic differences generally related to the geographic "home" of our less mobile ancestors. The notion that humans are anything other than the same species (or race, or ethnicity-however you want to break it down) with the same common ancestor(s) smacks of our egocentric need as humans to regard "our group" as something special. This a purely social construct. Simply put, we are all the same animal; you can just slice up the DNA to suit your particular world view. In other words, we like are a bunch of chocolate chip cookies and you seem to be going back to figure out if you are the sugar or the flour. Maybe you are full of chips.

That said, there is nothing inherently wrong with social constructs; take the Kiwanis club or the Republican Party, or the Russian nation for example. These are people with unique needs or want banding together for a common interest. But to base that social banding on an artificial, or even real, racial construct seems to move our society in a regression to tribalism, which is what generally leads to most of the trouble we have on this planet. Exhibit 1 – Please see Iraq, or for that matter, anywhere else in the Middle East, or most of Africa; especially Kenya as of late.

One last thought that comes to mind from your post. You are pretty confident in your assertion that the Turks (or Ottomans) are a bloodthirsty people. A broad assumption about any people, but I can assure you that the Turks have no special place in hell for the Armenian Genocide. There will be plenty of company there since we as a race are a bloodthirsty lot with a history of wholesale slaughter that continues to this day. Darfur anyone? Study a little history(back beyond what there happen to be pictures of) and you will discover that Armenia was invaded time and again, beginning in the historical record by the Hittites. Maybe the latest, victimized Armenians (who are Assyrians and a bunch of other "people") owe the Hittites (and their hodgepodge of "races" an apology for slaughtering them back around the 7th century B.C. Or maybe we just move on and try not to kill each other so much in the future.


From: edgarjohn40
To: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Sent: Wednesday, February 20, 2008 9:08 PM
Subject:xxxxxxxxx Re: Armenian holocaust research

Wow, so much to respond to, but I have to start with this post because it seems you must have stayed up pretty late to come up with such a witty retort. Akmed, that is pretty original. Well done, sir.

I especially enjoyed the juxtaposition of "Akmed", evidently meant to be an ethnic slur or otherwise degrading in some manner, with your follow on denial of hating Turks. Maybe you just hate all those OTHER dirty A-rabs, but not Turks, and I'm misconstruing what you meant by calling me "Akmed".

Sorry to disappoint the suspicious hate mongers in the bunch, I'm not Turkish, I'm American, the only "people" I choose to identify with, because I believe in the founding principles of this country, mainly the freedom to express any though I wish (which I enjoy heartily and, by the way, will defend to the death your privilege to the same right). But I digress. Notice I didn't say Turkish-American, Swedish-American, Melungeon-American, Troll-American or any other hyphenated semi-American. Just American. Brings me to another point; you guys are really wrapped up in my genealogy as if that has any bearing on the issue of this MHA group supporting Turkey and the Turks. Maybe if one of you can concisely tell me what it is that you want a Melungeon to be, I can tell you how many different ways I can dig up ancestors to fit your model dp that my words have more importance. Because if I'm one of you I must be special.

By the way, I did meet a Turk once; she was a student here who was dating my best friend (who is also not a Turk, before you get off on that track). She was pretty nice and I'm pretty sure she never killed an Armenian. Nor do I think that she owes any Armenian an apology since the murderers who slaughtered them are all dead and gone, as is the government of the Ottoman Empire, which did the killing. Did I mention that the Ottoman Empire ceased to exist in 1922, in the wake of the genocide? You are asking this Melungeon Heritage Association to cut all ties with anything having to do with Turkey, since Turkey won't acknowledge the Genocide. I will now ask YOU to renounce your American citizenship because George W. hasn't
apologized to China for Truman freeing the Japanese doctors from Unit 731 in exchange for their human experimentation data. Or do you support human experimentation? That would be the same logic at work. Remember, the son in not responsible for the sins of the father.

I have lived and worked hand in hand with the Armenian people in Armenia. I like Armenia and many of the people I met there. I know the anger and pain they feel to this day over the genocide and seizure of their lands. And I've felt their hatred of the Turks. But before you deify the Armenians, perhaps you should ask an Azerbaijani
what they think of the poor Armenians. Read up a little on the Armenian occupation of Nagorno-Karabakh and the alleged massacres by Armenian troops. The Armenian lobby here in America doesn't like to bring that up too much. Be careful throwing rocks in your glass house.

If any of you would have truly read and comprehended the entirety what I wrote instead of having a knee jerk reaction to the "I am a Melungeon" opening, you would have understood that my point is not that I truly claim to be a Melungeon descendant, or not to be one (if there even is such a thing) but that it is completely irrelevant to the entire discussion of the Armenian Genocide. Where do we start with the apologies and where do they end? Remember to feel shame tonight before you go to sleep for your role in slavery, or was that your great-granddad on Aunt Mabel's side three times removed who fought for the South. Doesn't matter, it is still your fault.

Well, I gotta run. Have to check my Turkish Embassy e-mail to see if they have my one-way ticket ready yet…I hear they have great robes there, look forward to the trip. I'll say hi to all the Akmeds for you.



Wednesday, February 20, 2008

1779 Louisa Co. VA Census Index

Anderson, Michael

Anderson, Nathaniel

Anderson, Robert

Armistead, Robert

Bell, George

Boswell, John

Cockram, Nathan

Combs, Joseph

Crooks, James

Crump, Richard

Dabney, Samuel

Duke, Cliverius

Hughes, William

Johnson, Elijah

Johnson, Thomas, Sr.

Jones, Anne

Meriweather, William

Minor, Garret

Nelson, John

Pattie, George

Poindexter, John

Richardson, Richard

Suttles, Winney

Thompson, David

Watson, Randolph

Yancy, Charles

Source: Family Tree Maker's Family Archives, Colonial Index: Colonial America 1607-1789, CD# 310


Bibliography fo Armenian Genocide

Tuesday, February 19, 2008


Volume 4, No. 5 January 1993

House of the Virgin Mary, Ephesus

Sacred destinations in Turkey


YouTube Melungeons Visit New York

I found this YouTube link over at the hateful Melungeon Heritage Research Group. Quite interesting. I think people should listen carefully to what Wayne Winkler said. He said that the Ottoman Empire was not just in Anatolia, but encompassed a large region.



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Redlegs was a term used to refer to the class of poor whites that lived on colonial Barbados, St. Vincent, Grenada and a few other Caribbean islands.

Monday, February 18, 2008

Racial heritage of six former presidents is questioned

Tuesday, February 05, 2008
By Monica Haynes, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette


Jewish citizens in Barbados in the year 1680

Page 449

Abof, Isack-- and 2 children & 1 servant

Aron, Abraham Burges and -- 2 children & servants

Barruch, Aron-- and 5 children & 5 servants

Boyna, Daniell-- and 3 children & 11 servants

Decompas, Leah-- and 3 children & 1 servant

Demereado, David Ralph-- and 3 children & servants

Devrede, Paul-- and 2 children & servants

Dias, Lewis-- and 6 children & 8 servants

FitsJames, ???-- and Servants

Hamias, Moses-- and 2 children & 1 servant

Israell, David-- and 5 children & servants

Lopes, Abraham-- and 2 children & 1 servant

Medinah, Leah-- and 7 children

Navaro, Aron-- and 7 children & servants

Nunes, Jacob Franco-- and 4 children & 1 servant

Perera, Isaac-- and 2 children & 4 servants

Qay, Abraham-- and 2 children & 2 servants

Rodrigus, Anthony-- and 3 children & 10 servants

Simon, Hester Bar-- and 5 children & 1 servant

Sousa, Abraham-- and 2 children & 2servants

Valuerde, Abr -- and 2 children & 4 servants

HOTTEN, JOHN CAMDEN, editor. The Original Lists of Persons of Quality; Emigrants; Religious Exiles; Political Rebels; Serving Men Sold for a Term of Years; Apprentices; Children Stolen; Maidens Pressed; and Others Who Went from Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600-1700. With Their Ages, the Localities

Where They Formerly Lived in the Mother Country, the Names of the Ships in Which They Embarked, and Other Interesting Particulars. From MSS. Preserved in the State Paper Department of Her Majesty's Public Record Office, England. London: Chatto and Windus, 1874, 604p. Reprinted by Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, 1974. Repr. 1986.

Sunday, February 17, 2008

Spanish To Peru on the year 1534

Surname with U-V-X-Y-Z

Ugarte, Antonio De
Vaca, Luis
Valcacer Gamarra, Juan De
Valderrama, Juan De
Valdevieso, Juan De
Valera, Luis
Valfanega, Pedro
Valladolid, Francisco De
Vallarejo, Juan
Vallejo, Garcia De
Vallerino, Hernando
Vargas, Diego De
Vargas, Francisco De
Vargas, Hernando De
Vargas, Jeronimo De
Vazquez, Antonio
Vega, Antonio De
Vega, Juan DeLa
Velasco, ???
Velasco, Hernando De
Velazquez, Alonso
Velazquez, Diego
Velazquez, Juan
Velez De Guevara, Gonzalo
Velez De Guevara, Gonzalo
Velez De Guevara, Juan
Vellosillo, Andres De
Venere, Antonio
Villaarta, Alonso De
Villaarta, Juan
Villalobos, Cristobal De
Villasinda, Rodrigo De
Villasinda, Rodrigo De
Virues, Diego De
Xexas, Juan De
Xexos, Diego
Ximon, Juan
Xuarez De Carvajal, Illan
Yanez De Guevara, Juan
Ynza, Diego
Zamora, Diego
Zamora, Diego De
Zamora, Hernando
Zamora, Luis
Zapata, Marcucio
Zayas, Alonso De
Zayas, Alonso De
Zuniga, Sedeno De
Zuniga, Sideno De
Zurbano, Jeronimo De

Source Code: 8870

Source Name:
SPAIN, ARCHIVO GENERAL DE INDIAS, SEVILLA. Catalogo de Pasajeros a Indias durante los Siglos XVI, XVII y XVIII. Edited by the docents of the General Indian Archives under the Director of the Archives, Don Cristobal Bermudez Plata. Sevilla [Spain]: Imprenta de la Gavidia. 3 vols. Vol. 1, 1509-1534. 1940. 515p.

Source Annotation:
Chronological list of passengers to Spanish America (including Florida and Louisiana, 1538-1559). From documents in the "Indian Archives" in Sevilla, 1509-1790.

Early Virginia Settlers


by Michael Kolhoff

Over 200 tri-racial isolate communities exist, or have existed, in the USA. These communities are not recent manifestations. They were here from the start. ...

President Abraham Lincoln


Saturday, February 16, 2008

First page of requested article: Trends in the Naming of Tri-Racial Mixed-Blood Groups in the Eastern United States"

Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups By Stephan Thernstrom

Naming of Tri-Racial Mixed-Blood Groups

A. R. Dunlap, C. A. Weslager

American Speech, Vol. 22, No. 2 (Apr., 1947), pp. 81-87


This article consists of 7 page(s).

Labels: ,

West Virginia Guieneas Marriages

Collins, A. M. ...Male, N. Nov 1, 1866

Collins, M....Male, Rees Nov 1, 1866
Collins, Icy Lee...Male, William Apr 30, 1890

Collins, Amanda...Male, William B. Apr 30, 1883

Collins, Mary E....Newman, Nathaniel Jan 7, 1880
Collins, Noah...Newman, Rosanna Jun 4, 1877
Collins, Berthena...Newman, Solomon Aug 29, 1888
Collins, Catharine...Norris, James W. Jul 2, 1869

Collins, Eve Norris,...James W.Aug 22, 1886

Collins, Arrena...Ross, Charles Jul 11, 1872

Collins, Sarah...Runner, Lewis Mar 1, 1881

Collins, Jane...Sanders, Henry...Dec 1, 1870

Collins, Rebecca...Stalnaker, Randell T. Aug 1, 1887

Collins, William...Stansberry, Nancy H. Jul 4, 1872
Collins, Sarah...Swaney, John Oct 27, 1878

Collins, Sophronia...Williams, William Oct 13, 1878


Friday, February 15, 2008

Vincent Brooks Baber

Vincent Brooks Baber is my great grandfather. His grand-mother's name is Martha Brooks, his father's name is James Reed Baber. His great grand father's name is Vincent Reed. Does any have a similar pattern in their family? I was told by a genealogist/historian, that this practice is common in Barbados. We have a hypothesis that my Barbados ancestor is Baber Isaac.

The Melungeon DNA Surname Project

Melungeon Surname Researchers
Elizabeth Hirschman & Donald N. Panther-Yates

Thursday, February 14, 2008


For the past 375 years Barbados has been anglophone. Due to its position as the most easterly island in the Caribbean, it was early recognised to be of strategic naval and military importance and with the popularity of sugar which was introduced to the island by the Dutch from Brazil, the tiny island loomed large as Britain's most prosperous colony. The spread of sugar plantations precipitated migration to the other colonies as those bondsmen who were to be paid in land at the end of their service were unable to secure the ten acres that was their due. May Lumsden states that from 1650 to 1680 nearly 30 000 of the 80 000 original settlers of Barbados moved on to the North American mainland or to other islands and credits this outflow to the North American colonies with the introduction of "ideas, capital, agricultural know-how, a gracious life-style, as well as a determination to work and prosper." [1] Today, many of the descendants of early settlers of America can trace their ancestry to Barbados so that as a foremost colony with unbroken records of its English speaking inhabitants since 1637, Barbados' history cannot be discounted in any study of the English speaking Americas and its peoples.

Familiarity with those records of Barbados settlers indicates that there were small endogamous groups of non-English peoples who anglicised their names. In comparing the oral history of my own family with that of the written records, I came to the conclusion that they had originally been Flemish and by 1715 had done what others were doing, and that was to bring their names in line with English domination of the island. This practice of accomodation by adjustment of surnames in Barbados is the precedent for the mystery to which Brent Kennedy points concerning Melungeon surnames and the Melungeon claim to be other than English.

In Kennedy's history of the Melungeons, there is a marked pattern, a parallel, to be found in Barbados, not associated so much with the love child who was incorporated into the plantocracy both in North and South America and in Barbados but with the ones who were referred to as "abandoned people", a name which aptly describes what Kennedy translates from Turkish as being "melun-can" - a lost soul. Together, "lost soul" and "abandoned people" convey the sense of dispossession and of alienation from mainstream society in a period of history when in this hemisphere persons were forcibly removed from their homelands and left to fend for themselves in unaccustomed environments. [2]

On the other hand, melungeon may be, as Kennedy also offers, simply the Portuguese word for mixed race and this would tie into their claims to be Portuguese, which then leads us to yet another group of unsettled people, in search of land, a new identity and acceptance and these would be persons connected with Jewish communities who had become conversos. Jewish emigres from Brazil migrated to Barbados in 1654. According to Shilstone by the end of the seventeenth century there were about 250 living on the island and "although mainly Portuguese, were gathered from all parts of the world". There was also reference to Jews in Barbados since 1628. This figure of 250 most likely can only apply to practising Jews. [3] Under the Inquisition Jews had been persecuted for their religious beliefs so that fleeing from Mexico and Brazil, some of their households would have accepted christianity as a protection and, in so doing, would have stressed their kinship with the Christian nations rather than with Judaism. Cromwell offered asylum to the Jews of Europe to settle in Barbados and a synagogue has been in existence in Barbados since 1664. Mixed race persons from Jewish households might therefore have found it preferable when removed to another colony to identify with the culture from which they had sprung. For instance, in 1729 Jacob Valverde made a bequest to his daughter of the "Indian Wench Sary" and to his son, "the negro Woman called Esparansa." Esparansa was no doubt an anglicisation of the Spanish 'Esperanza'. [4] When such mixed persons escaped to a better life it would have been more politic to stress their Spanish heritage to account for their darker skin.

Since Barbados was at the centre of English colonialism, in this article, therefore, I would wish to give a brief outline of Barbados history and draw the parallels between the Melungeons and the poor whites and poor coloureds of Barbados - the red people, because they are brothers in poverty and the love child is their sister.

Displacement and the Melting Pot:

In the midst of later conflicting evidence as to the number of persons settled by Sir William Courteen on the island of Barbados, the Sloan Manuscript 2441, recorded in the Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society, sets out an Account of His Majesty's Island of Barbados and the Government Prepared about 1684 which describes the first ship load of settlers from England thus:
"In 1626 Courteen settled 1850 men, women and children - English, Indians and others." [5]

It is to those "Indians and Others" that historians and genealogists must now turn our attention as it demonstrates the genesis of the relegation of certain peoples to a non-existent status because even though there is some evidence of a lively slave trade between North America and Barbados in Native Americans taken from the American accounts unearthed by Jack Forbes and Barbara Olexer it has been the official position in Barbados that only a few Native Americans, mostly from South America, were enslaved here. Yet, as pointed out in Love Child, there are references to slaves whose names are re-echoed in North America. [6] Chief among these is Cumba/Coombah which Kennedy attributes to the Lumbee/Croatan of North and South Carolina. [7]

In Barbados, the term "abandoned people" was used to describe an endogamous group of poor, white-skinned people who were also called "poor backras or buckras", a name not far removed from the epithet "buck" used to describe male North American Natives and Natives of Guyana in South America. This reference to abandonment was used by the upper classes, the high whites and the high browns, and even though this community which has sister communities in the Grenadines and St. Vincent appeared to be Cauacasians they were yet called, by visibly African people, "red", the same term used to describe Native Americans, as opposed to the Europeans who were always referred to as "white".

Added to this mosaic were the victims of the African slave trade moving from Africa to Barbados and on to the American colonies together with the other hidden trade in Native American slaves moving from the colonies to Barbados and other islands which is yet to be fully documented; but it is crucial to understanding the history of those light-skinned persons who, having been born outside the pale, whether separate or of combined Native American, European and African origin saw a chance to remove themselves from the taint of slavery by transferring to the North American colonies, those among them who had the means being assimilated into frontier society and those without, being cast out.

Since the belief was cemented that there were few Indians enslaved in Barbados, Price took the trodden path that the name Red Legs and Red Shanks which applied in South Carolina to persons of Indian descent could not have the same meaning in Barbados but applied as he was told to kilted highlanders. [8] No one took the time to analyse the names in the slave inventories. For instance, in 1650 Colonel William Hilliard of Somerset leased Henley Plantation on the East Coast for 99 years to six gentlemen "... with all negroes Indians and other slaves with all cattel household stuff..." Six years later he deeded the plantation to his son in law "in consideration of marriage between Meliora daughter of the said William Hillyard" and one of the above lessees together "with all negroes Indians and others." [9]

Although the documents speak to Indians in the plural only one woman is singled out as being such. In the first deed, her name is given as Simmy and in the other as Syminige which name is phonetically the same as the Yoruba Sheminige. All other slaves are called "negro" and the Mareahs of the first document are spelt in the second in their Spanish form which is Maria. This tiny clue bears witness to a later statement by a Governor of Spanish Florida that the English were kidnapping mestizos - half-breeds. The Hilliard inventory therefore marks a sinister trend and that is that Native American ancestry was being officially erased or subsumed under the European or African partner's category.

A footnote to the Hilliard Deeds is the appearance of a paradox. Hilliard records that 23 new slaves who are obviously second generation since they have Christian names were brought to Barbados on the May Flower commandeered by Captain Hunte. It would be ironical if this is the same good ship the Mayflower which brought passengers to religious freedom in North America and alternatively brought others to be shackled in Barbados.

As for Moors in the Caribbean, Pere Labat left that record of them in the French islands. In the English colonies, the West African peoples of Nigeria, Ghana and Senegal were the ones who were highly favoured and the ones most likely to be chosen as overseers and, more importantly, to be given Native American wives before the influx of African women made it unnecessary. The first baptismal records of Barbados also indicate that several people were baptised without reference to their parents and, especially, without reference to their mothers, which leads to the very simple conclusion that these mothers were in fact non-Europeans. Stemming from Barbados, therefore, one could find a multi-racial group of people of varying hues who could claim an ancestor who was Portuguese, Dutch, English, Scotch-Irish, West African or Native American but who were themselves anglophone.

Parallel Surnames

Of the Barbados Census of 1680, David Kent remarks that among those of the Hebrew nation are people with Portuguese surnames but Lumsden further elucidates that many of the emigrants from Brazil had earlier had their abode in Amsterdam. This combination of Dutch and Portuguese speaking Jews may comprise a small part of the claim of some Melungeons to be of Dutch or Portuguese descent since the Jewish people were particularly versatile in adapting their surnames to suit their temporary abode, for example, Navarrh could have been derived from Navarrhoe, an early Barbados Jewish name. The names Gibson and Davis which feature in Kennedy's lists as being Redbones are re-echoed in Price's reference to transplanted Barbadian Red-Legs to St. Vincent and Bequia, neighbouring islands.

The history of Flemish ingenuity and their resistance to Spanish oppression by settlement in the Netherlands and in Britain is a key to understanding social relationships and inter-marriage patterns in Barbados and elsewhere because it shows that people who have been separated by nations often seek out their ethnic groups when they come into unfamiliar surroundings. By this period, the Flemish people had either become British like Sir William Courteen or were known as Dutch like Governor Groenewegen to whom Courteen's men resorted for assistance in setting up the colony.

In 1651, however, Sir George Ayscue with his fleet banished the Dutch from Barbados. So where did they go when thrust out of Barbados? The American frontier is the most likely place. The appearance of people on the mainland who have no previous record among the so-called white inhabitants of Barbados may be explained by the possibility that some persons had slipped abroad without licences to travel to another colony. By 1663, Barbadians were showing interest in colonising Carolina and many of the Melungeon names are to be found in Barbados.

Kennedy astutely pointed to the presence of Turkish artisans among the English and the possibility of gypsies being among early colonists, a hypothesis which is ably confirmed for the latter group by The Calendar of State Papers of 1679 which records the following proposal to the King and Council:
"to constitute an office for transporting to the plantations all vagrants, rogues, and idle persons that can give no account of themselves, felons who have the benefit of clergy, such as are convicted for petty larceny, vagabonds, gypsies, and low persons, making resort to unlicensed brothels, such persons to be transported from the nearest seaport, and to serve four years according to the laws and customs of those islands, if over twenty years of age." [10]

Slavery and Prejudice

The sense of superiority which naturally arises when one group takes control of another's destiny is no new phenomenon. It runs through the history of mankind and this is why this writer considers the Melungeon movement to be so important at this juncture in history as a force resistant to racist rhetoric so that persons who acknowledge the contribution of their multi-ethnic ancestors reflected in their own lives powerfully disprove charges of intellectual inferiority which the bigoted would like to see as inherent in any one people.

On one hand, the South Carolina courts [11] were in essence saying that a mixed race person with property and known association with whites could be deemed white with all the attendant privileges of that status but, on the other hand, a slave, no matter how far he was removed from his African ancestry, could have no such aspirations. In Barbados, the principle was the same, though strongly denied. The closeness that obtained between Barbados and the Carolinas and Virginia in particular with so many persons of the pioneer companies having proceeded from Barbados makes this phenomenon very understandable as the genesis for the need for isolation and the imparting of extreme prejudice to subsequent generations which, in Barbados, gave birth to a visibly white community yet known as Red, their original status.

Other Parallels

The Calendar of State Papers for 1657 gives the unique description of the labour policies on Barbados in which the Irish "were derided by the negroes as white slaves" and records that negroes were being employed at trades rather than the the English, Scotch and Irish. Two years before the official report it was recorded that the import of Irish people as labour was being resisted by the English because the Irish were wont to throw in their lot with the escaped slaves yet the written record on Barbados is that the Irish never intermarried with the escapees they joined forces with.

1) Isolation

Forbes came to the conclusion that many of the removed Native Americans were engaged in fishing activities. Early Barbados history confirms that the captured natives were being used as fishermen as well as house servants and coincidentally, pockets of white communities with a non-European culture were springing up being termed Red-Legs or Poor Backras marrying among themselves. Early photographs of Red-Legs show a marked resemblance to some of Kennedy's portraits of Native American and Melungeon families.

On Barbados, the Red-Leg community centred on the hilly, isolated areas of Irish Town and the Scotland District which has led historians to believe that they were an unmixed remnant of Scotch-Irish. The eating habits formerly ascribed to them of eating lice, crickets and bonavist, a type of bean, however indicates more than Irish origins. Impoverished through lack of opportunity these communities were referred to as "abandoned people".

2) Degradation:
The accounts of the Red-Leg during slavery is that of collaboration with slaves to steal their masters' goods and of care extended to them by slaves who were better clothed and fed. These accounts are at variance with that of an editorial written in the Barbadian newspaper of 1861 which stated that "they became the armed protectors of the proprietary againt the insurrection of the slaves." It is the same job description for Amerindians in Guyana and Indian trackers elsewhere. In that editorial, emphasis was loaded on their being descended from "gentlemen, clergy, officers of the army and navy, industrious families of the middle classes in England, sturdy English labourers..." [12] Though true to one extent, no reference was made to the mixed ancestry of the mates of these English persons.
Early accounts of their lifestyle of squalor, loose living and thievery were not explained except by the word "abandoned". Their poverty was accepted and even their education was limited by the plantocracy as being suitable for an underclass. Some Red Legs of Barbados, as the Melungeons of Appalachia, eventually removed themselves from European aggression and African infiltration but this is only half the story. The other half I attempted to cover in the story of the love child, the ones who were assimilated into European communities as they settled in England, the Commonwealth and North America.

In conclusion, the rediscovery of the history of the Melungeons, as related by Brent Kennedy, is of one people linked by our Native American ancestry throughout the Caribbean and the Americas. To be melungeon in today's world is to have the courage to acknowledge the mosaic of our ancestral heritage and to revel in the various aspects of those cultures which have formed us; but it goes further than that. I believe that it must rank as the start of a movement to uncover the truth of human history without racial bias because it is clear that if, within 400 years, the record of some peoples' existence can be so mangled that only a glossy official record remains, then what has been accepted as truth concerning ancient empires must be challenged so that there are no missing gaps; and that, I think, must be our mission.

Lila Salazar is a graduate of the University of theWest Indies
and is a genealogist. She has written a guide to the
social history of Barbados, titled Love Child.

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MALUNGU: The African Origin of the American Melungeons

by Tim Hashaw
Part 1

"Black Indian" Lists Prove Helpful

"Black Indian" Lists Prove Helpful by Brent Kennedy January 25, 1998
"Arrival of Blacks in late August of 1619 aboard a Dutch man of war. These blacks were sold/traded into servitude for supplies. Indication by surviving wills, inventories, deeds and other documents that in some instances it was considered "customary practice to hold some Negroes in a form of life service. It should be noted that by examining these documents it was also found that some blacks were able to hold on to their status of being indentured servants, thus, eventually gaining their freedom."

The Melungeons in Early Court Documents

Jack Goins and Penny Ferguson
Sixth Union Presentation

James H. Nickens Virginia Indian Historical Society

James H. Nickens
Virginia Indian Historical Society
Melungeon Heritage Association
Mid-Atlantic Native American Researchers

Sixth Union
June 8-10, 2006
Kingsport, Tennessee

The Importance of the Melungeon Community to Turkish-American Relations

by David Arnett
Sixth Union
Kingsport, Tennessee
June 9, 2006

Early Settlers From Turkish Lands to USA

Dr. Buyukataman
Fifth Union

From Anatolia To Appalachia

by Joseph Scolnick Presented at Fifth Union
Kingsport, Tennessee
Thursday, 17 June 2004

Who Are the Melungeons?

Wayne Winkler
Presented at Fifth Union
Kingsport, Tennessee
Thursday 17 June 2004

The East Asian Factor

by Jerry Warsing
Presented at Fifth Union
Kingsport, Tennessee
Friday, 19 June 2004

Wednesday, February 13, 2008

1755 Tax List BEAUFORT County, NC

Abraham Barrow
Benjamin Barrow
James Barrow
Jane Barrow
John Barrow
Richard Barrow

 Buck, Isaac

 Buck Isaac, Jr.

Source: Colonial America, 1607-1789 NC Census Index


"Turkish and Armenian families were documentably present in Jamestown"

Anthony a Turk Anthony Eastindian 1636

Virginia Land Records, Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents page 674

(448) Mr. George Menfye, merchant, 1, 200 acres in the county of James City, a neck of land commonly called the Rich Neck [1] extending from a neck bounded on the westside by a branch of Archer's Hope Creek, which divides the said neck from a neck commonly called the Barren Neck; and bounded on the east by the main branch of Archer's Hope Creek to the head to the head thereof, and from thence in a direct line to the head of the said branch. Due for the traansporation of twenty-four persons (names below). By Harvey, February 23d, 1636.

Edward Hickman, Thomas Andrews, Anthony Skinner, Richard Clarke,

Symon Lovum, Jon. Doe, Richard Apleton,

Anthony Eastindian [i.e. an East Indian]

William Sutton, William Large, John Abraham, William Stodon, John

Bagby, Jon. Ellis, Sam'l Turner, Richard Wherwood, John Baker, John

Grimes, Thomas Poole, Thomas Taylor, Lettice Price, Robert Thomas,

Anthony [a] Turk, Jeffery Hatton.


NEW YORK (A.A) – 27.01.2008 - A panel discussion on "Common Roots between Native Americans and Turks" was held in New York, on Saturday


Genealogy For Sale

Tuesday, February 12, 2008

Census of the Cumberland Settlements

Census of the Cumberland Settlements, 1770-90, Davidson County Census, Page 71

Longhair - a Chickasaw chief and his son were killed in May, 1789, near Clinch River, while accompanying Judge McNairy on his rounds through the settlements :[ref. 56]


Davidson County TN Census

Census of the Cumberland Settlements, 1770-90, Davidson County Census, Page 1

Jim Allen was a lawyer in Nashville before 1787/98, but failing in business, he went off with the Indians and became an interpretor at Chickasaw Agency on the Natchez Trace

Census of the Cumberland Settlements, 1770-90, Davidson County Census, Page 44

Goins (variously, Goin, Goings), David killed by Indians at Mansker's Station in 1780/81. He had slept late on the morning Mansker's Station was broken up and was shot in bed by Indians shooting through the portholes: [ref. 44a]. William Goins (sic) was granted administration of his estate by the Committee of the Cumberland Association, Mar. 4, 1783: [ref. 44b]

Goins, William - administrator of the estate of David Goins, deceased (see aove).

Gowen, William - signer of the Cumberland Compact, May, 1780: [ref. 49a]. Plaintiff in lawsuit against John Gibson concerning cattle belonging to the estate of David Gower, deceased, befor the Committee of the Cumberland Association, July 1, 1783 : [ref. 49b]. Member of the first Grand Jury, Oct. 7, 1783 : [ref. 49c]. North Carolina land grant : [ref. 49d].


Virginia in the year 1623

The following people were living in Virginia in the year 1623

Boot, Francis
Boys, ???
Boys, Luke
Branch, Christopher
Browing, William
Browning, William
Champer, Robert
Chapman, Nicholas
Cooksey, William
Coop, Walter
Cooper, Walter
Dalbie, William
Day, John
Dod'S, ???
Edlow, Mathew
Farnell, Robert
Gastrell, Ebedmelech
Halam, Robert
Hobson, Edward
Hobson, Thomas
Holland, Gabriell
Jones, Thomas
Jorden, Peeter
Marlett, Thomas
Moises, Theoder
More, Leonard
Osborne, Thomas
Perkinson, Elizabeth
Perse, Nicholas
Price, William
Rawton, Esaias
Royall, Joseph
Shurley, Daniell
Vincent, ???
Vincent, William
Walker, William
Wattson, John
Welder, William
Williams, David

Source: The Original Lists of Persons of Quality; Emigrants; Religious Exiles; Political Rebels; Serving Men Sold for a Term of Years; Apprentices; Children Stolen; Maidens Pressed; and Others Who Went from Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600-1700 JOHN CAMDEN HOTTEN, editor
Reprinted by Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, 1974. Repr. 1986

Monday, February 11, 2008

Native American Music Album: "Totemic Flute Chants," Johnny Whitehorse

Grammy Award Winner

Sunday, February 10, 2008

Barbados, in the Year 1638

This site gives the names of Barbadians who then possess'd more than ten Acres of Land.


Barbados and Melungeon connection


Apache Nation Border's PART 2

"Please go online to sign the following petition in support of the
Lipan Apaches' efforts to stop the building of the border wall and further millitarization of their territories) on their land."

Saturday, February 09, 2008

First Y-DNA Results Indicate Turkic Origins for TURK

Toni Richard Turk wrote on Genforum the following:

"These Family Tree Y-DNA findings reveal the following results to countries - exact matches: Poland, Silesia, and Slovakia; one step mutations: Poland; two step mutations essentially Eastern European Ashkenazi - LEVITE. The countries stated to have an Ashkenazi connection are: Belarus, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine. A review of the literature indicates a distinction between the Cohen Modal Haplotype and LEVITE priesthood lineage. The latter is "a different, less-well defined patrilineal lineage".

History & Origin(s) of the TURK Surnames

Tennessee The Volunteer State Vol 1 page 827


McMinn County was created on November 5, 1819, out of lands ceded by the Cherokee Indians to the United States in that year, and was named for Joseph McMinn, who was governor at that time.

McMinn, Monroe and Bradley counties embraced the largest and best portions of the land thus ceded.

"A new judicial circuit was established in lower East Tennessee, composed of seven counties, of which McMinn was one, and the Hon. Charles F. Keith, then a leading lawyer of Jefferson County, Tennessee, was elected the first judge, and held the first Circuit Court in the county, at the house of John Walker, in the town of Calhoun, on the Hiwassee River, fourteen miles southwest from Athens, the present county seat, on the first Monday of March, 1820."17

Maj. John Walker was part Cherokee and laid off the town of Calhoun on land allotted him and named it for John C. Calhoun. In 1821-1822 the Town of Athens was laid off and, in 1823, the courts of the county were moved there. Noted members of the Athens bar were: Return J. Meigs, Spencer Jarnagin, Thomas Campbell, later clerk of the House of Representatives in Congress, and J. W. M. Brazeale, the historian.

Early settlers in McMinn County were: A. R. Turk, E. P. Owen, John Cowan, George Colville, and Eli Sharp.

After he had served his third successive term as governor, McMinn was appointed agent to the Cherokee Indians and, on his death, was buried in the yard of the Presbyterian Church at Calhoun which was built in 1823.

A pretty romance is told of the marriage of Miss Emily Meigs, daughter of Return J. Meigs, to the son of John Walker. The young man was very handsome but as he had Cherokee blood, her father opposed the union. So they eloped. But, as he was a Cherokee chief, he was compelled to placate his people by espousing an Indian girl, named Nancy Bushyhead. He was murdered by two Indians as he was returning from the council which decided upon the Cherokee cession.

Anthony a Turk Anthony Eastindian 1636

Virginia Land Records, Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents 674

(448) Mr. George Menfye, merchant, 1, 200 acres in the county of James City, a neck of land commonly called the Rich Neck [1] extending from a neck bounded on the westside by a branch of Archer's Hope Creek, which divides the said neck from a neck commonly called the Barren Neck; and bounded on the east by the main branch of Archer's Hope Creek to the head to the head thereof, and from thence in a direct line to the head of the said branch. Due for the traansporation of twenty-four persons (names below). By Harvey, February 23d, 1636.

Edward Hickman, Thomas Andrews, Anthony Skinner, Richard Clarke,

Symon Lovum, Jon. Doe, Richard Apleton,

Anthony Eastindian [i.e. an East Indian]

William Sutton, William Large, John Abraham, William Stodon, John

Bagby, Jon. Ellis, Sam'l Turner, Richard Wherwood, John Baker, John

Grimes, Thomas Poole, Thomas Taylor, Lettice Price, Robert Thomas,

Anthony [a] Turk, Jeffery Hatton.

Turk Mountain

Turk Mountain and Turk Gap are two prominent geographical features overlooking the southern end of the Shenandoah Valley in Augusta County, Virginia.

History of Augusta County, Virginia By John Lewis Peyton page 328
In the year 1739 Robert Turk was deeded 1, 313 acres in Augusta Virginia .

Huguenot, Gypsies and Mediterrenean

Tim Hashaw paper. Very interesting and thought provoking

Thursday, February 07, 2008

World Americas : Lost people of Appalachia

"The Melungeons were long ostracised in the US for their dark skin. The BBC's Richard Lister travelled to Appalachia in search of these isolated mountain people."


Wednesday, February 06, 2008

The Age of Explorers and Conquerors

The year of 1492 marked the end of the Spanish conquest of the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslims. In that same year Christopher Columbus stepped ashore Bahamian inlet of San Salvador and claimed the land for Spain. The people who greeted Columbus and his crew were the Arawak and Taino peoples. The following year 1493, the first Spanish settlement in the New World was established at Hispanola.

Then Columbus sailed to Cuba and Hispanola. The people living on the land were of the language of the Taino and Arawak speaking people. These people grew crops for food and they smoked tobacco. The Taino lived in cities. Some of their cities had populations as large as three thousand. Shortly after the Indian people encounter with the Spanish they were enslaved and made to work hard on colonial plantations. Some of those enslaved were shipped to Mexico. When the captives reached Mexico those who survived were put into chains and were forced to work in the silver mines. Spain encouraged citizens to settle in New Spain. In 1512 a Spanish declaration gave Spanish grantees the right to make slaves of the American Indians under the encomienda system.

The Spanish intentions in the first two decades of the 16th century weren’t colonization but instead to gain wealth for their country. The galleons carrying silver back to Spain had to pass through the Straits of Florida also known as the Florida Channel. This is a sea passage separating the tip of Florida and the Florida Keys from Cuba and the Bahamas Islands. The length of the straits is two hundred miles and the width is ninety miles. The straits connect the Gulf of Mexico with the Atlantic Ocean. The greatest part of the Florida current flows through the Florida Straits and forms the main part of the Gulf Stream. This small passage was vital to Spain’s newfound source of wealth.

Spain decided to send more expeditions to the Americas. In the spring of 1513 Juan Ponce de Leon landed on the eastern coast of Florida’s peninsula and made a claim for Spain. The peninsula had an abundance of beautiful flowers hence the name Florida meaning the land of flowers. In mainland America, the first five decades of the sixteenth century was an era of many unsuccessful attempts by explorers and Christian missionaries to establish a permanent Christian settlement in the New World. There were other notable voyages and expeditions recorded during this era such as Miruelo (1516), Cordova (1517), Pineda (1519), Ayllon (1520).

The indigenous People of Florida

While exploring the region of Florida, the voyagers saw many villages populated by another race of people who had diverse cultures. The voyagers reported that the indigenous population was dying by the thousands from Old World diseases. An estimated total population of the Indians at this time was anywhere from 20,000 to 40,000.

To the northwest the Indian villages of the Apalachee tribes flourished upon the land by the Suwannee and Apalachicola Rivers. At the center of the peninsula the Timuquanans had many villages along the St. John’s River.

In the southwest region the Calusa Indians had numerous homes from Cape Sable to Tampa Bay. The missionaries had to confront a persistent spirit of hostility to Christian teaching. These Indians were described as cruel, crafty, though recklessly brave, polygamous, and inveterately addicted to human sacrifice. Juan Ponce Leon of Spain encountered the Calusa Indians when he landed in 1513. The Calusa who put up a fierce resistance to the invaders did not welcome the Spanish. In 1521 during a skirmish an arrow mortally wounded Leon. Leon was laid to rest in the St. John River.

A small village of Tegestas Indians lived on Biscayne Bay. Some anthropologists believe that the Tegestas Indians originally from the Bahamas and had a kinship with the Calusa tribes.

The Ays tribe lived along the Indian River south of Cape Canaveral. There were only a few Ays people. These Indians came in contact with the early missions and were used for labor in the building the Christian settlements. These tribes connect to ethnologically and linguistically to the great Muskhogean or Creek family.

Some of he records of the early voyages to the Americas amazingly have been preserved. The Archives at Seville, Spain contain the many names of those who were courageous enough to cross over to the New World. I have attempted to bring these people and their stories back into the light of history.

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Tuesday, February 05, 2008

Manuel Mira

My feature of the month is about Manuel Mira who is a world known
author of several books about the Portuguese and their role in
shaping America's early history. Manuel Mira was born in Portugal and
now he lives in America's Appalachian Mountains in North Carolina.
Throughout his life, Manuel has lived on three continents, which has
resulted in a unique understanding of the diverse forgotten groups of
people that the Portuguese blended in with around the world. His
dedication to history and research has uncovered long forgotten facts
about early American and Portuguese history...

This article is from archives. Mira's book is filled
will facts about the Portuguese's settlements in America's early

I have come to the conclusion that the people who first came to the
shores of the Americas were already of mixed ancestry. To really
understand American history we need to understand the Old World

Monday, February 04, 2008


The Melungeon's Portuguese roots

David Arnett


This David Arnett is not the David Arnett associated with Turkey.

Sunday, February 03, 2008

Walking Toward the Sunset: The Melungeons of Appalachia By Wayne Winkler


Mulengeon or Not?:

Book studies Turkish, Melungeon links

US Consul General Arnett lauds Turkey, says he himself has Turkish blood

Appalachian Voice - Melungeons Celebrate Heritage, Ties to Europe

Melungeons Celebrate Heritage, Ties to Europe by Tilly Gokbudak

Assembly of Turkish American Associations


Ancestry of Barack Obama

According to Don Collins and Curtis Christy, known as Melungeons, Obama is a decendant of the Melungeons.




Saturday, February 02, 2008

Voyagers to America in 1528

Did your ancestors come to America in 1528? Click the above link to look for your ancestors.


Brent Kennedy & Turks

Pittsburgh has a large communitiy of Turkish people. Over a period of ten years, I met and talked with so many college aged students while caring for my ailing father. These hard working students graduate to doctors, they are a very intelligent peoples. Many graduates work in some of the best hospitals in this country.

In 1996, I could not believe the Turks knew of Brent Kennedy and they ALL wanted to attend a gathering to meet him in person. They love Brent Kennedy for many reasons, one being his humanity and his concern and commitment towards peace.

Also, I would like to add that after interacting with the Turks in person and online, I find their personalities very similiar to Native Americans.

Elie Wiesel

Brent Kennedy's thoughts after listening to Nobel Peace Prize winner Elie Wiesel, in Bristol.


Brent Kennedy Wrote

Wayne re Melungeon Indians
Fri, 7 Mar 2003


"They didn't latch onto a Mediterranean heritage because it was in my book. It's in my book because they said it. Also, there are no original "Kennedy" theories. The theories that Melungeons might be Portuguese, Gypsies, Turks, etc., etc. all existed and were all in print long before I came along. As some of you know, even I had to be convinced early on of a possible "Turkish" infusion. The truth is, I simply reported on these theories and, yes, subscribed to some of them (but, as you noted, still consider them theories). But all this with the recognition that no two families are the same and that NO single theory fits all."


Living In Macon New tools available for family research

Friday, February 01, 2008

Are American Indians Turkish?

Tuesday, January 29, 2008

'This conference did not intend to make a statement. We are not suggesting that all Native Americans are of Turkish descent,' says Ali Çınar. 'However what came out of the conference is that the link between the groups needs to be studied in a more serious way'

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